What are the Types of Thalassemia?
There are two types of proteins that are responsible for the generation of red blood cells, the alpha-globin, and the Beta-globin. A healthy individual requires a chain of 4 alpha-globin genes and 2 beta-globin genes. If even a single count is missing from the gene, a gene fault occurs and as a consequence, thalassemia symptoms appear.
Types of Thalassemia
When it comes to the types of thalassemia, it depends upon the production of the alpha-globin and the beta-globin protein cells. Therefore, based on the low production of these two, there are two Thalassemia types:
1. Alpha Thalassemia: when the hemoglobin fails to produce an adequate amount of alpha-globin, the alpha variant of the titular condition occurs. Why is the production low? Alpha-Globin proteins need four genes to exist, 2 from per parent. Is there is even a single gene missing from any of the parents (or the gene is faulty), the condition can cause alpha thalassemia. This condition has four variants:
- One faulty gene: There are no symptoms of this version. However, the carries of one faulty gene are the carrier of this disease and there is a high possibility that their offspring might have a more severe version of this condition.
- Two Faulty Gene: The symptoms are nothing more than mild anemia. This particular version is mostly described as alpha thalassemia.
- Three Faulty Genes: this condition brings forth the hemoglobin H disease. Patients with this condition have to rely on blood transfusion for the rest of their lives.
- Four faulty genes: The final and the most detrimental variant of alpha-globin deficiency. A fetus is at the most risk in this condition as fluid starts to accumulate in its body.
2. Beta Thalassemia: when it comes to Beta-globin protein chains, two genes are required, one from each parent. If any of them is faulty (or absent), this issue occurs. Similar to the alpha version, its different versions are determined by the number of genes that are faulty:
- One faulty Gene: This is a minor version of beta-thalassemia. The symptom is only a mild version of anemia that sort of mirrors the Iron deficiency anemia.
- Two Faulty Gene: Coley anemia is the major symptom of this version of the disease. To that end, the symptoms of this condition can range from mild to severe.
Dealing with both the variants of thalassemia requires treatments of the similar sorts. However, if you want the best treatments of the bunch, you should confer with Fortis Hospital Gurgaon. Under the guidance of the best hematologist in India, all your issues will be resolved.